After the session of the French Chamber in which Dupuy quelled the panic, caused by the explosion of a bomb thrown by an anarchist, with the courageous words, “La seance continue,” the visitors in the gallery were asked to testify as to their impressions of the outrage. Among them were two provincials. One of these said that immediately after the end of a speech he had heard a detonation, but that he had thought that it was the parliamentary custom to fire a shot whenever a speaker had finished. The other, who had apparently already listened to several speakers, had got hold of the same idea, but with this variation, that he supposed the shooting to be a sign of appreciation following a specially successful speech.
…To remember, then is precisely not to recall events as isolated; it is to become capable of forming meaningful narrative sequences.
In Narrative Truth and Historical Truth, Donald Spence suggests that psychoanalytic narratives should be thought of more as construction than as reconstruction, that psychoanalysts give up the archaeological model and think of interpretation as a pragmatic statement with no necessary referent in the past — in short that narrative truth replace historical truth. The test of this truth is a therapeutic one, and Spence notes that Freud came to take the position that “an assured conviction of the truth of the construction … achieves the same therapeutic result as a recaptured memory . Spence compares this construction to an artistic and rhetorical product.
As defined by psychologist Donald Spence, historical truth involves concrete objects and events; a memory is historically true if it can be factually verified. Narrative truth involves the connections between events, which are not verifiable because they are based on values, interpretations, and emotions. A memory has narrative truth when it captures an experience to the satisfaction of those telling and listening to it. Narrators who focus on historical truth see themselves as “archivists,” guarding original records and trying to keep them pristine, while those who focus on narrative truth are “mythmakers,” cre-ating a story “that speaks to the heart as well as the mind” and “seeks to know the truth and generate conviction about the self.”
What is clear in all these cases — whether of imagined or real abuse in childhood, of genuine or experimentally implanted memories, of misled witnesses and brainwashed prisoners, of unconscious plagiarism, and of the false memories we probably all have based on misattribution or source confusion — is that, in the absence of outside confirmation, there is no easy way of distinguishing a genuine memory or inspiration, felt as such, from those that have been borrowed or suggested.
Case Histories and Fiction
Pirandello sat in his writing room into which characters came to him to share their narratives
King Henry wrote narratives for everyone he came in contact with
wrote characters for his patients.
action takes place in the dialogue between therapist and patient…. subjectivism,
Winnicott and the Squiggle Game
Object Relations as a dialogue between entities … entities joining up to form an identity
Endgame : the externalized dramatization of psychic object relations
Gibson?:Cyberspace is the space which you enter on the telephone. Now social apps.
In the Poetics , Aristotle claims that plot is the most important feature of a narrative. A good story has a beginning, middle, and end, making a shapely whole with no extraneous elements. Aristotle also addressed the social and psychological role of narration. He described tragic drama as the purging or catharsis of the undesirable emotions of pity and fear by first arousing them and then clearing them away.
Bakhtinian, or dialogical theories (Mikhail Bakhtin);
psychoanalytic theories (Freud, Schafer, Spence, Kenneth Burke, Lacan, N. Abraham);
Some general features of this literature include the idea that there are typical formal elements or “deep structures” to narratives, a position most extremely stated by the Structuralists, and that there is a complex interaction between the telling of stories and what is told in them, especially their performative dimension.
According to J. Hillis Miller, we need narratives in order to give sense to our world, and the shape of that sense is a fundamental carrier of the sense. We need the “same” stories over and over, as a powerful way to assert the basic ideology of our culture. Miller also suggests that in some way these stories do not satisfy. In this respect, he comes close to Paul de Man’s description of texts. According to de Man, “The paradigm for all texts consists of a figure (or a system of figures) and its deconstruction. But since this model cannot be closed off by a final reading, it engenders, in its turn, a supplementary figural superposition which narrates the unreadibility of the prior narration.” (Allegories of Reading, p.205)
The extensions of narrative inquiry as ways of describing both history writing and psychoanalysis have called into question the precise nature of their respective claims to truth .
While Freud never explicity discussed the narrative character of the analytic experience, later writers such as Sherwood and Spence have pointed to its central importance and have shown the ways in which the psychoanalytic dialogue seeks to uncover the analysand’s efforts to maintain a certain kind of narrative discontinuity. To remember, then is precisely not to recall events as isolated; it is to become capable of forming meaningful narrative sequences. (Connerton)
In Narrative Truth and Historical Truth, Donald Spence suggests that psychoanalytic narratives should be thought of more as construction than as reconstruction, that psychoanalysts give up the archaological model and think of interpretation as a pragmatic statement with no necessary referent in the past — in short that narrative truth replace historical truth. The test of this truth is a therapeutic one, and Spence notes that Freud came to take the position that “an assured conviction of the truth of the construction … achieves the same therapeutic result as a recaptured memory . Spence compares this construction to an artistic and rhetorical product.
This pragmatic approach to the truth has exposed a vulnerability in the Freudian structure that critics have been quick to exploit, especially in relation to Freud’s abandonment of the seduction theory. The extravagant claims of recovered memories of child abuse and of consequent multiple personality disorder are but the counterpart of this attack on Freud.
George Kelly scripted characters for his patients to portray… Construct altenativeism
Solomon : emotions as occurring in the space between people
Schafer and the Intersubjectivists
Objects in therapy and programs
Goes from a Case History through to a failed double nihilistic psychotherapeutic process
The other chapters are generated by the development of the therapeutic process as articled from the metaphor of a study of Elaboration
The failure of termination as “only thing you should get from the patient is money”
Case History Laura written as a join project of patient and therapist — by the third mind
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